Minority Health Archive

Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs.

Drewnowski, Adam and Specter, S E (2004) Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 79 (1). pp. 6-16. ISSN 0002-9165

Full text not available from this repository.

Abstract

Many health disparities in the United States are linked to inequalities in education and income. This review focuses on the relation between obesity and diet quality, dietary energy density, and energy costs. Evidence is provided to support the following points. First, the highest rates of obesity occur among population groups with the highest poverty rates and the least education. Second, there is an inverse relation between energy density (MJ/kg) and energy cost (US dollars/MJ), such that energy-dense foods composed of refined grains, added sugars, or fats may represent the lowest-cost option to the consumer. Third, the high energy density and palatability of sweets and fats are associated with higher energy intakes, at least in clinical and laboratory studies. Fourth, poverty and food insecurity are associated with lower food expenditures, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and lower-quality diets. A reduction in diet costs in linear programming models leads to high-fat, energy-dense diets that are similar in composition to those consumed by low-income groups. Such diets are more affordable than are prudent diets based on lean meats, fish, fresh vegetables, and fruit. The association between poverty and obesity may be mediated, in part, by the low cost of energy-dense foods and may be reinforced by the high palatability of sugar and fat. This economic framework provides an explanation for the observed links between socioeconomic variables and obesity when taste, dietary energy density, and diet costs are used as intervening variables. More and more Americans are becoming overweight and obese while consuming more added sugars and fats and spending a lower percentage of their disposable income on food.


Export/Citation:EndNote | BibTeX | Dublin Core | ASCII (Chicago style) | HTML Citation | OpenURL | Reference Manager
Social Networking:

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is available at the publisher’s Web site. Access to the full text is subject to the publisher’s access restrictions.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Poverty • food insecurity • obesity • education • income • energy density • food costs • added sugar • added fat • palatability • socioeconomic status
Subjects: Health > Health Equity > Access To Healthy Foods
Health > Disparities
Health > Nutrition
Health > Public Health > Chronic Illness & Diseases > Obesity
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Users 141 not found.
Date Deposited: 16 Jun 2011 15:22
Last Modified: 23 Jun 2011 16:26
Link to this item (URI): http://health-equity.pitt.edu/id/eprint/2594

Actions (login required)

View Item